People who have bred many mares soon realize that each mare is an individual and there may be many variations in the reproductive cycle length between mares. There is, however, a basic cyclic pattern that "most" mares will follow. Typically, during the breeding season, a mare will have a day estrous cycle the interval from one ovulation to the next.
Veterinarian Ana Canelo carries an artificial mare vagina after she extracted semen from a stud horse at the equine reproduction Genetec center dedicated to polo horses in Los Cardales, north of Buenos Aires, Argentina, May 7, Veterinarian Cristian Sporleder, whose genetics laboratory has been tapping the high-rolling polo market for 15 years, explained how embryos created using the sperm and ovum of top performing polo horses can be implanted in surrogate mares, thus allowing the female polo horses to continue their careers without getting pregnant. Picture taken May 7,
Equine anatomy refers to the gross and microscopic anatomy of horses and other equidsincluding donkeysand zebras. While all anatomical features of equids are described in the same terms as for other animals by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature in the book Nomina Anatomica Veterinariathere are many horse -specific colloquial terms used by equestrians. Horses and other equids evolved as grazing animals, adapted to eating small amounts of the same kind of food all day long.
Mare's Genital Tract. This is a diagram of a mare's genital tract. It is T-shaped, the ovaries are kidney bean shaped due to ovulation fossa. A frenulum present in the ventral or dorsal portion of the portio-vaginalis of the cervix.
Veterinarian Angela Smith BVSc outlines the foaling process and signs to look for in a mare who is about to deliver. One of the first signs is the distended udder. During the last month the udder usually enlarges.
Improved diagnostic techniques and advances in the understanding of equine reproductive physiology and pathology have resulted in increased pregnancy rates in mares. Affected mares will not only fail to produce a foal, but will often have a lower conception rate during the next breeding season. Pregnancy losses during late gestation could be the result of fetal illness, placental dysfunction, or maternal illness see Table 1.
The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta CTUP and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7—12 of pregnancy. Pathological placental edema and ultrasonographic images showing uteroplacental roughness or distinguishability were observed even in the normal group. These findings suggest that increased CTUP and placental separation would reflect placentitis and abnormal pregnancies and may help to detect them in heavy draft horses.
The external portion of the mare reproductive tract includes the vulva and clitoris. The conformation of the perineal area is important because the labia lips are the first barrier to introduction of debris into the reproductive tract windsucking and gives clues to the vaginal tilt and possible problem of urine pooling in the vagina. Surgical correction for conformation problems is possible: Caslick's closure of the vaginal lips windsuckingepisioplasty and urethroplasty urine pooling are common surgeries.
Poor vulvar conformation is sometimes a congenital problem that leads to endometritis. When the vulvar lips are tilted cranially, the vulva seal is usually compromised and the mare becomes predisposed to genital infection. Tilting of the vulvar lips is accentuated in older mares because the perineal region is more flaccid and it stretches with age and each successive foaling.